CORPORATE HOSTING FOR ALL INCLUSIVE HOT LINE PRIVATE SERVICE ALL INCLUSIVE WEB PRESENCE OFF SITE BACKUP WEBSITE ECOMMERCE 1 GIG STORAGE MORE NOTE: THE CPO SITE WAS STARTED IN 1994 WITH 1 GIG OF WEB PAGES AND INFO. CPO BUILT THOUSANDS OF PAGES AND WON 45 AWARDS. CO HAS SINCE REDUCED THE SITE AND[…]
WATCH CLEANING 1950 4JAR + HEAT DRYER ULTRASONIC SYSTEM ROCK HAS THIS BUILT BY PATEK 18K YELLOW GOLD TIFFANY & CO DIAL, MOVEMENT AND CASE SIGNED OPERATING PERFECTLY A NEW MAINSPRING WAS ADDED WAITING FOR SECONDS HAND BELOW ARE THE PICS & INFO PLACED BEFORE THE RESTORATION Tiffany & Company is an American[…]
ABOUT Used in antique spring-powered mechanical watches and clocks, a fusee is a cone-shaped pulley with a helical groove around it, wound with a cord or chain which is attached to the mainspring barrel. Fusees were used from the 15th century to the early 20th century to improve timekeeping by equalizing[…]
THIS MWB IS A DIRECT RESULT OF A COMMANDER AT THE U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY. ABOUT A WEEK AGO WE WERE CONTACTED ABOUT PROVIDING A VINTAGE ANTI-SUB TIMER FOR A GRADUATING ENSIGN WHOSE FIRST ASSIGNMENT IS ON A NUCLEAR SUBMARINE. WELL, WE PUT TOGETHER A BOX AND IN THE PROCESS NOT ONLY DID WE INVEST IN[…]
1175 Buford Highway. Suite 120 Suwanee, Georgia. 30024 www.goldsmithworks.com 770.831.1257 – 1.800.438.6894 Date/Report Number 091711:PATEK-53e58 Item Patek Philippe Ellipse Automatic 1977-1980 18kt Gold, Description of item: Patek Philippe Ellipse Automatic 1977-1980 18kt Gold, Ref. 3589/1 SIGNED THREE TIMES PROFESSIONALLY RESTORED 18K YELLOW GOLD PATEK PHILIPPE AUTOMATIC WITH ATTACHED 18K GOLD MESH BAND/BRACELET WITH A 18K[…]
click one of a few thousand 6105 restores click 6105 was in salt water and dried left for 2 years PARTS ARE HARD TO FIND MOST COME FROM SIMILAR MOVEMENTS BUT WE HAVE ACCESS TO A CROSS REFERENCE DATABASE LIKE THE 6105 BALANCE? IT IS IN 7 OTHER SEIKO MOVEMENTS above is a[…]
US GOVERNMENT ISSUED VIETNAM WAR WATCHES WITH A SECTION ON FAKE & COUNTERFEITS READ BEFORE BUYING VIETNAM ERA MILITARY WATCH THERE WERE NEVER ANY NAMES ON DIAL OR US NAVY US ARMY US MARINES OR AIR FORCE EVER OK, I HAVE PUT A VIETNAM MILITARY WATCH PDF TOGETHER IT IS FREE FREE DTU-2 EDUCATIONAL[…]
BEFORE A FORUM DODO BIRD SWEEPS IN TO “HELP” BY INFORMING US IT AIN’T SO…. ALLOW ME TO INFORM YOU OF THE HISTORY OF THE 48 STAR AMERICAN SHEILD W/EAGLE AND PORCELAINE DIAL. AN ELGIN POCKET WATCH -WITH PERSHING DIAL- AFTER RESTORING OVER 200 PERSHING DIALED WATCHES, WE CONCLUDED THAT, THOUGH ELGIN PRODUCED[…]
THE RAREST WWII GERMAN WATCH A SMALL RUN OF THESE POCKET WATCHES WERE MADE IN GERMANY BY ALPINA HONORING HITLER.–\FEW SURVIVED FEWER STILL ACTUALLY RUN DUE TO PARTS THIS ALPINA WAS/IS NOT SIMPLY A FASHION OR HONOR WATCH THE FACT THIS ALPINA HAS A MILITARY HACKED SWEEP SECONDS HAND AND THIS RARE MILITARY GRADE[…]
GERMAN-MILITARY-WATCHES.pdf GERMAN WWII ARMY SWEEP SECONDS INTELLIGENCE WATCH **************************************** BELOW IS PHOTO OF GENUINE DI-H ABOVE WAS POSTED ONLINE AS IS *************************************** I HAVE HAD ONLY TWO OF THESE IN 20 YEARS THE GERMAN MILITARY PROPERTY MARK”DI SERIAL H” WAS UTILIZED FOR THE ARMY INTELLIGENCE SERVICE MORE GERMAN WWII WATCH HISTORY BELOW ALL WATCHES[…]
SALES EXCLUSIVE ON VINTAGE VINTAGE TIME RE-MADE IN AMERICA™@ COPYRIGHT/TRADEMARK 2004 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 1 ORGANIZATION GOLDSMITHWORKS 35000 IMAGES/25000 PAGES ONLINE 24/7 Vintage Time Re-Made In America ™ Turning Your Old Jewelry Into Something New ™ State Licensed Precious Metal & 2nd Hand Dealer VINTAGE MILITARY/COLLECTIBLE WATCH RESTORATION FINE JEWELRY – GEMSTONES & DIAMONDS[…]
SORRY, UPGRADING CAUSED THE PDF PROGRAM TO GO OBSOLETE. WE THEN RESURRECTED OUR 18 YEAR OLD A2Z4FREE.COM URL AND INSTALLED THEREON A FRESH SITE WITHOUT ALL THE PLUGINS. OUR THOUSANDS OF RECORDED DOWNLOAD STATS. I WAS PROUD OF THEM. BUT LETS GET THEM BACK. I DO NOT NOW IF THEY WILL POST AGAIN [MY SHARE[…]
Turning Your Old Jewelry Into Something New ™VINTAGE & MILITARY WATCHESVintage Time Re-Made In America ™ WE SUPPORT TIMEFRAUD.COM ABOUT USGoldSmithWorks™ 2005 ROCK SCARFONE ALL RIGHTS RESERVED,provides this page to educate users about our company, our services and our trade & service marks and actions that infringe those trade/service marks and other intellectual property rights.COMPANY:VEroTRADE GROUPS:SERVICE[…]
Item as described 5.0 Communication 5.0 Shipping time 5.0 Shipping and handling charges 4.8 MEMBER 2005-2015 GSW 2006/2015 2329 POWER SELLER/TOP RATED PLUS 2007-2015 WE CHANGED OUR SHIPPING PROGRAM TO 24HRS FROM THE TIME OF SALE TO OFFER 24 HOURS TO RUN WATCHES THAT MAY HAVE BEEN ON THE SHELF 90[…]
IF YOU WERE ME, ABSOLUTELY YES & NO. AS TO TIMING IT, THE SAME. IT TAKES TRAINING, BUT MORE PERSEVERENCE…
A WEEK OR TWO. POSSIBLY A FEW 18 HOURS DAYS..
THIS BECOMES YOUR ” EXPERIENCE ” IN BALANCING…
FROM THE DRAG OF THE HANDS TO THE USE OF TIMING WASHERS.. LITTLE BRASS AND/OR COPPER WASHERS PLACED BETWEEN THE HOUR WHEEL A DIAL.. [OVER THE CENTER CANNON PINION] .. ALSO KNOWING THE MAIN SPRING BARREL AND MAIN SPRING AND HOW TO UTILIZE HEAVIER OR LIGHTER SPRINGS TO COMPENSAYE FOR WEAR...
NOT ALL PARTS CAN BE CHANGED OUT DO TO COSTS, AVAILABILITY, AND OTHER CAUSES AND REASONS...
BUT THE MAIN FACT IS THAT IT CAN AND IS ACCOMPLISHED EVERY DAY………
BOTTOM LINE TO THE EXPERT THAT IS TIMING A VINTAGE TIME PIECE WITH 40 TO 80 YEARS OF MILEAGE BECOMES MORE THAN THE TIMING MACHINE;;
THE TIMING UNIT MEASURES THE BEAT OF A MOVEMENT AND OTHER IMPORTANT FACTORS. THE IDEA IS TO CREATE THE OPTIMUM SWING OF THE BALANCE IN REFERENCE TO THE FULL UNWINDING OF THE MAIN SPRING. FROM FULL WIND TO NEAR UNWIND.
THE TWO SPRINGS ARE THE MAIN AND THE HAIR SPRING..
GO: HTTP://GOLDSMITHTRAINING.COM AND CLICK THE MOVIE BUTTON FRONT PAGE
TO VIEW A QUICK AWESOME MOVIE TO SEE HOW A MOVEMENTS TRAIN OPERATES
FROM THE MAIN THROUGH TO THE BALANCE AND HOW THE MAGIC PRODUCES TIME MEASUREMENT
ONE BECOMES AN EXPERT RADIOGRAPHER; A GENIE WITH A LANTERN.;
WHILE A FANCY PRINT OUT FROM AN EXPENSIBVE TIMING MACHINE CAN SURELY SHOW WHAT IS WHAT.. THE BEST MEANS OF TIMING A VINTAGE TIMEPIECE REMAINS THE OLD FASHIONED WAY USING SIMPLE TOOLS THAT DO NOT COST 700.00 TO 5000.00
COMMON TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT LIKE A:
A STANDARD DIGITAL TIMING CLOCK: LIKE THAT ON A WALL OVEN W/TIMER
A STANDARD QUARTZ WATCH OR CLOCK: JUST A NORMAL CHEAP QUARTZ WATCH
A STANDARD FRIDGE [NY SLANG]: CHILLING THE TIME FOR 5 TO 10 MINUTES
A VERY GOOD TWEEZERS & TWO SCREW DRIVERS. WILL PROVIDE SIZE AND MODEL
THOUGH PARTS WEAR OVER TIME. IT IS THE WHEELS RUBBING AGAINST EACH OTHER FOR 5, 10, 15, 39, 40, 59 YEARS THAT CAUSE NATURAL WEAR.
NEVER EVER TURN/SET VINTAGE WATCHES COUNTER CLOCK WISE IOF YOU DO NOT HAVE TO DO SO. PERIOD. SIMPLY TRY NOT TO DO SO.
GETTING BACK TO WEAR, THE FIRST TIME PIECES EVER MADE WITH METALS USED ONE TYPE OF METAL. CLOCKS WOULD BE BUILT WITH, SAY. BRASS, COPPER, TIN, AND GEARS MADE WITH THE SAME METAL WERE USED IN MOST BUILDS UNTIL IT WAS DISCOVERED THAT WHEN USED THIS WAY, THE GEARS/WHEELS MADE OF SIMILAR METALS WORE TWICE AS FAST AS IF AN ALLOY OF BRASS WAS USED AGAINTS AN ALLOW OF WHITE METALS.
IRON/STEEL WITH COPPER/BRASS WOULD LAST TWICE AS LONG AS IF THE BRASS/COPPER WITH BRASS/COPPER OR IRON/WHITE METAL WITH IRON/WHITE METALS. THE MACHINIST WHO CAME UP WITH THIS BRIGHT IDEA USED A WHITE METAL ALLOY AGAINST A BRASS METAL ALLOY AND NOTED THAT THE WHEELS LASTED LONGER.
HENCE, A WHITE ALLOY METAL WHEEL AGAINST A BRASS ALLOY WHEEL IN BOTH CLOCKS AND WRIST WATCHES AND TIMERS ARE FACT TODAY. YET THERE REMAINS WEAR, EVEN IF NOT SO WORN AS TO REQUIRE FULL REPLACEMENT. THIS WEAR ADDS TO DRAG AND TO A CHANGE IN THE TRAIN OF THE SMOOTH OPERATION OF THE TIME PIECE.
KNOWING THAT THIS OPPOSITE OR OPPOSING METALS DOES NOT STOP WEAR COMPLETELY, RESTORATION MUST USE MANY ADJUSTMENTS AS WELL AS REPLACING THOSE WHEELS AND PINIONS THAT ARE EXCESSIVELY WORN.
YOU CAN CLEAN AND LUBRICATE A TIME PIECE. BUT THE ONLY TRUE ADJUSTMENTS TO A WATCH ARE THE:
BALANCE OSCILLATION BACK AND FORTH.
THE TILT OF THE BALANCE
THE ADJUSTMENT OF THE HAIR SPRING
THE USE OF STRONGER OR WEAKER MAIN SPRINGS
AND THE ADJUSTMENT OF WASHERS, SPACERS, HANDS, CANNON PINIONS
THE ALTERATION OR REPLACEMENT OF HOUR AND MINUTE WHEELS
THE REPLACEMENT OF WHEELS AND/OR PINIONS
HOW FAST OR SLOW A BALANCE OSCILLATES. THE CYCLES
ONE CAN MIC EVERY PINION, PIVOT, TINE AND JEWEL ON A 40 T0 60 YEAR OLD TIME PIECE AND DISCOVER THAT ALL IS WITHIN THE LIMITS.
OR WITNESS PARTS WORN BEYOND THE FACTORY SPECS. MAYBE NOT FOR TOTAL REPLACEMENT, BUT WORN ENOUGH TO USE THEIR TOOLS AND EXPERIENCE AS STATED ABOVE TO GET ANOTHER 30 TO 40 YEARS OUT OF A TIME PIECE. .
BUT TO REPLACE EVERY WHEEL, PIVOT AND OR PINION WOULD SIMPLY BE UNFEASIBLE DUE TO COSTS AND AVAILABILITY. .
UNLESS IT IS A VACHERON OR PATEK OR RARE ROLEX …. THEN THE PARTS ARE WORTH MACHINING……
LIKE THESE ROCK RESTORED:
A VACHERON OR PATEK W/WOLFS TEETH? SPEND THE BUCKS!
A PATEK-53e58 Item PATEK Philippe Ellipse Automatic 1977-1980 18kt Gold YES!
IT IS SIMPLY UNFEASIBLE IN MANY CASES… SO WE KEEP THE CASE AND FIND A MOVEMENT..
A UNIVERSAL GENEVE SOLD AT 350.00 I HAD NEAR 240 OR NEAR 300.00 IN HER TO FIX AFTER THE MAIN GAVE OUT???. HECK. IT SIMPLY IS NOT DONE.
NOW, IF YOU HAVE A WOLFS TEETH WATCH LIKE THE VACHERON WATCH ABOVE, WELL, YOU WILL HAVE PLENTY OF PROFIT TO COVER A COMPLETE OVERHAUL INCLUDING ALL WORN PARTS. THAT WOULD ENTAIL THE MANUFACTURING OF PARTS.
BELOW THIS ESSAY IS INFO FROM THE NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WATCH AND CLOCK COLLECTORS. THE ONLY ADJUSTMENTS TO A WATCH ARE FOR TIMING. YET, NONE WILL MAKE UP FOR WORN PARTS.
THAT IS UNLESS YOU ARE LIKE ROCK.. WILLING TO GO THROUGH THE EXTREMEMES KNOWING THE WORK WILL NEVER BE PAID FOR…
THIS EXPLAINS THAT NORMALLY THE ONLY ADJUSTMENTS TO A VINTAGE WATCH ARE FOR TIMING. AND, IN ALL FACT AND REALITY, DO NOT MAKE UP FOR MOST ACTUAL WEAR.
ALSO, ALL ARE FOR THE ADJUSTMENT OF TIMING. AND MOSTLY HAVE TO DO WITH NEW WATCHES AND THE TIMING AFTER SERVICING WHILE THE WATCH IS SERVICEABLE.
WHICH DOES NOT HAVE MUCH TO DO WITH MOST OF THE VINTAGE WATCHES. SUCH AS A 50 YEAR OLD BULOVA, A 58 YEAR OLD 17 JEWEL GENEVE OR A 78 YEAR OLD CHRONOGRAPH. AS WELL AS THE FACT ALL THREE ARE UNADJUSTED. THUS THEY ARE USUALLY ONLY ADJUSTABLE TO SIMPLE TIME KEEPING.
BUT IF YOU TIME WITH A MACHINE, THEN, OVER A WEEK OR TWO, USING COLD HOT TEMPS, RE-FRIDGE, HEAT LAMP AND”RAFTER TIMING”, YOU CAN PRETTY MUCH GET THEM STRAIGHT UP– THOUGH YOU PULL YOUR HAIR OUT, YOU HAVE TO SET AN ALARM AND GET UP AND DOWN 7 8 8 12 TIMES A NIGHT AND BITCH OVER AND OVER, YOU TELL AT THE WATCH, YOU RESET THE BALANCE 30, 40, 50TIMES, YOU MAY PULL THE HANDS 25 TIMES… HEN DO IT ALL OVER AGAIN UNTIL THAT WATCH BEGINS TO PURR.. NOW, KMB OR KMA
THAT IS HOW AND WHY MY WATCHES LAST AS THEY DO AND WHY I ASK WHAT I DO ASK.
PEOPLE THINK THEY CAN GET WHAT I GIVE FOR LESS. THE MARKET IS SOUR WITH CHEAP GARBAGE THAT MAKES WHAT I DO SEEM WHAT THEY DO.
Unadjusted movements are those for which no effort has been made to adjust the watch to temperature or position. Or, no provision has been made to allow for these adjustments. Whatever variation in the timekeeping rate results from a change in temperature, or the position in which the watch is carried, exists as a result of the way that the particular watch was built. This has to be accepted as the best that watch the can do. Fortunately, just about all of the mass-produced, jeweled, American, unadjusted watches could keep time within a few minutes a day.
NONE OF THE BELOW IS EFFECTING THE WATCHES I RESTORE:.
Movements that are marked to be “Adjusted” may have a variety, or combination, of features. One has to read the catalog description for any given movement grade to discover just what level of adjustment is being claimed. High grade watches built after 1905-1908 may be marked with specific adjustments. This is especially true for watches intended for use in railroad time service. The balance (wheel), the wheel that spins back and forth rapidly is the device that sets the timekeeping rate of the watch. The purpose of all of the features for an adjusted watch is to keep the balance (wheel), as nearly as possible, oscillating at a consistent rate. The consistency of the rate of oscillation of the balance (wheel) thus determines the timekeeping quality of the watch.
Temperature Compensated Balance (wheel)
A balance (wheel) that is temperature compensated (also known as an expansion balance) has the rim made of two dissimilar metals. There are usually two arms (spokes) from the hub supporting the rim and there is a slot cut in the rim just past each arm. This forms two rim segments having one end supported by the arm and the far end free to move. These slots, and the two colors of metal in the rim, are identifying characteristics. As the temperature increases, lessening the power of the hairspring – the spring coiled inside of the balance (wheel) – the far ends of the rim segments deflect inward. As temperature decreases, the segment ends relax, moving outward, as the hairspring strength increases. The action is much like an inexpensive thermostat in the home. This movement of the rim segments changes the moment of inertia of the balance (wheel), compensating for the alteration in the hairspring strength.
Adjustment to Temperature
This is sometimes referred to as adjustment to heat and cold. It requires a temperature compensated balance. The balance has pairs of screws (180 degrees apart) set into the rim. These give the balance mass, which sets the basic rate at which it oscillates. One pair may be the meantime screws (which can be identified – if present – by being longer than the other screws), used to bring the rate deviation to minimum (with the regulator in its center position) after all of the other adjustments have been made. The locations of most of the pairs of screws (each pair is 180 degrees apart) on the balance (wheel) rim are chosen to provide the best match of change in moment of inertia to change in hairspring strength (there are extra pairs of holes so that the screws may be moved to the best possible positions). The object is to keep the balance (wheel) oscillating at the same rate over the specified temperature range.
Adjustment to Position
The next level is adjustment to position. This is adjustment to maintain the same rate of balance (wheel) oscillation, regardless of which of the specified positions the watch is in. There are a total of six positions. Unfortunately, the number or the positions to which the watch is adjusted isn’t specified for most watches built prior to 1905-1908. Typically, unspecified adjustment to position means adjustment to three positions, but there are a number of instances in which it means five, or sometimes 6, positions. Adjustment to three positions most likely means stem up, stem at the 3 o’clock position and stem at the 9 o’clock position.
In discussing adjustment to positions (on the NAWCC Pocket Watch Message Board, 26-Aug-06), John Runciman, quoting from the book Watch and Clock Information Please W. H. Samelius? by O. R. Hagans, posted a definition of adjustment to four positions as dial up, stem up, stem at the 3 o’clock position and stem at the 9 o’clock position.  It was also stated in O. R. Hagans’ book that adjustment to two positions was defined as dial up and stem up, while adjustment to one position was stem up with watch inclined 45 degrees to the rear The marking “Adjusted 2 Positions” is only occasionally seen, seemingly only on low grade Swiss watches. An indication of adjustment to one position is almost never seen.
Watches adjusted to five positions include the three positions of stem up, stem at the 3 o’clock position and stem at the 9 o’clock position, plus the dial up and dial down positions. Robert Sweet once posted several pages from the 1914 edition of the Hamilton Timekeeper which lists the five positions in order as (1) dial up, (2) dial down, (3) stem up, (4) stem at 9 o’clock and (5) stem at 3 o’clock. The 6th position is stem down at the 6 o’clock position. These positions are illustrated in a 1924 Illinois ad’. Since temperature variation is usually greater than positional variation, watches marked to be adjusted to position include adjustment to temperature. A high grade Swiss watch marked to be adjusted usually implies adjustment to all positions, wherein “all” may be 5 or 6 positions. Nevertheless, it takes a bit of experience to distinguish those movements to which this applies.
Some watches are marked ?8 Adjustments.? Depending upon the manufacturer?s specification at the moment that the watch was made, this can mean adjustment to temperature, isochronism (see below) and 6 positions. Or, it may mean adjustment to heat, cold, isochronism and 5 positions. To clear up the ambiguity, in the early 1950?s, Elgin marked its top (and only) railroad pocket watch ?9 Adjustments.?
Dave Chaplain reported the following Tariff Act of 1930 Discussion of Adjustment, on the NAWCC American Pocket Watch Message Board on September 18, 2008, 09:59 PM.
“The Tariff Act of 1930 has fees associated with watches of varying adjustments with a possibility of 9 total adjustments as follows:
“6 adjustments to position: stem up, stem left, stem right, dial up, dial down, stem down – another government publication of 1946 refers to these 6 positions and states that most “high quality watches” are adjusted to 5 positions and omitting the stem down adjustment, and “good quality watches” with 3 position adjustments most often are the stem up, dial up and dial down postions
“2 adjustments to temperature: hot and cold – the 1946 paper describes “modern monometallic solid balances” … “with hairspring made of Elinvar or some similar nickel steel alloy” as making these temperature adjustments moot
“1 adjustment to isochronism”
Another point on the subject of adjusting was posted by Don Dahlberg, pointing out that the rate to which watches were adjusted varied from grade to grade.
The marking “Adjusted” on a movement means whatever the manufacturer said it meant at the time that the watch was built. Lacking descriptive factory literature, we have no way of knowing what that means today. Unless a watch is specifically marked as to the number of positions to which it is adjusted, such as a watch that is only marked “Adjusted,” the only way to know that number (if it is adjusted to positions at all) would be to identify the grade and find the manufacturer’s description of the position adjustment for that grade. For example, the U.S. Watch Co. of Waltham’s “
The President” grade is only marked “Adjusted” (in the 9 o’clock position – right at the junction of the two damaskeened circles), yet U.S. at Waltham’s description states that it is “adjusted to heat, cold, isochronism and all positions, …” Another example is Waltham’s grade No. 35, which is only marked “Adjusted.” The description of that grade is “Adjusted to Heat and Cold, and in all Six Positions.” A lesser example is the model 92 Appleton, Tracy & Co., which simply marked “Adjusted.” A February 1902 Waltham ad describes it to be only adjusted to three positions. When the Appleton, Tracy & Co. Premier grade was introduced a few months later, it too was only marked “Adjusted,” but an October 1902 Waltham ad states that it was adjusted to five positions.
Adjustment to Isochronism
Then, there is adjustment to isochronism. This is accomplished by the design and adjustment of the hairspring – the spring coiled inside of the balance (wheel). The power output of the mainspring (the spring that is wound when winding a watch) tends to decrease as it unwinds over the course of the day. This causes the balance (wheel) to rotate through a greater rotational angle when the mainspring is just wound and a lesser angle when the mainspring needs winding. A watch adjusted to isochronism oscillates the balance (wheel) at the same rate throughout the specified length of run between windings of the mainspring, regardless of how far in each direction the balance (wheel) rotates. This length of run is typically 30 hours for earlier watches and 42 hours for post World War I watches of better quality. However, mainsprings whose power output were nearly constant over the first 20 hours after a full winding were supplied in higher grade watches starting in the late 1920’s. The need for adjustment to isochronism lessened with the application of these mainsprings.